International Community’s Demands from the Taliban

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The Taliban had fought for 20 years against the foreign forces, particularly the United States of America (USA), and the government whom they supported and dominated Afghanistan again by taking the control of Kabul on 15th August 2021. Shortly after, they announced to the whole world that they have been the actor ruling Afghanistan by revealing their temporary government.

Even though the Taliban took the possession of rulership in Afghanistan on their own, not any states have yet recognized the established government. It is seen that the international community agrees on three issues although each country has listed different conditions in return for the recognition of the Taliban. These issues are the establishment of a pluralistic administration, respect for human and women’s rights, and positioning in a line that distances itself from terrorism and fights against terrorist organizations.

It is difficult to claim that Western countries, especially the USA, will develop their relations by officially recognizing the Taliban. However, the point that draws attention here is the uncertainty in the attitudes of the states that supported the Taliban in the past. The states in question prefer to act collectively instead of recognizing the government in question at the individual level and determine their wishes in line with the conditions listed by the international community towards the Taliban. Afghanistan’s neighbors and regional countries held summits in Moscow, Dushanbe, Tehran, New Delhi and Islamabad to draw a roadmap for the Taliban. Nevertheless, the expected results from the mentioned summits did not come out.

When the Taliban was not officially recognized by global/regional actors and states that have close relations with it, they made a diplomatic attempt and appointed Suheyl Şahin, one of the leaders of the movement, as the United Nations (UN) Representative. The UN Accreditation Committee and General Assembly, on the other hand, did not accept the representative appointed by the Taliban and decided that the representative of the old regime would represent Afghanistan. The UN announced the failure to establish a pluralistic government that respects women’s rights as the reason for this decision.

The UN is an international organization to which all states are members for various purposes. Recognition of the Taliban by this organization will contribute to avoiding being pushed into loneliness. The fact that the representative of the movement in question was not accepted by the UN made it difficult for the states that have close relations with the movement to make a decision to recognize it.

The Taliban thinks that they dominate Afghanistan and ensure the security of the country and fulfill all the conditions for recognition. Therefore, it wants this to be accepted by the international community. In its statement, the Taliban Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that the decision of the UN General Assembly had no legal basis and that the rights of the Afghan people were ignored. In addition, the authorities claim that the declared government has met all the conditions demanded by the international community.

One of the controversial issues raised by the opposition and the international community is that a pluralistic and inclusive government has not been established in Afghanistan. According to the Taliban, the declared government is inclusive because it consists of people from all ethnic groups. The international community, on the other hand, wants people with different views to take part in the government. Opponents, especially the leaders of the Penshir Movement, on the other hand, mean that what is meant by pluralist government, the source of power, is not force; states that it is a situation based on the will of the people.

The second issue discussed is the issue of human rights, especially women’s rights. The Taliban say that the established government is the representative of an Islamic state and will provide women with the rights given by Islam. In this context, in a statement they published, the leader of the Taliban, Mullah Haybatullah Ahund, declared that women are not objects, that they are free individuals and that no one can force women to marry. The international community, on the other hand, states that the rights provided to women are not sufficient and demands the right to work, education, property and to elect and be elected.

The third controversial issue is the Taliban’s fight against terrorism. The organization in question has committed to severing its relations with all terrorist organizations, especially Al-Qaeda, within the scope of the Doha Treaty, and not to allow Afghanistan to be used as a base by terrorists. However, in the last period, the so-called Khorasan Emirate of the terrorist organization State of Iraq and Sham (DEAS) in Afghanistan has increased its activities in the country and organized various attacks. While the Taliban announced that they are fighting hard against DAESH; they claim that al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations cannot operate in Afghanistan. Against the claims of the Taliban, the international community states that in addition to DAESH, Al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations are active in Afghanistan and that this situation may become a threat from Afghanistan to the countries in the region and the world.

The above-mentioned disagreements constitute the biggest obstacle to the movement’s non-recognition as an official government. This aforementioned situation leads to the blocking of Afghanistan reserves and the cessation of foreign aid to the country. Since Afghanistan’s economy is completely foreign-dependent, the blocking of reserves and the cessation of foreign aid brought the country’s economy to the brink of collapse. In such an environment, unemployment and poverty increase. According to most independent organizations, the blocking of Afghanistan’s reserves and the cessation of foreign aid deepens the humanitarian crisis in the country. Although some states, especially the UN, send support to the Afghan people as humanitarian aid, these initiatives are not capable of solving the aforementioned problems.

As a result, the group most affected by the conflict between the Taliban and the international community is the Afghan people, who had to face the Covid-19 epidemic and drought problems. In the current conditions, the Afghan people are not thinking of the conditions determined by the international community; but of surviving in harsh winter conditions. In short, the international community should adopt a prudent and constructive attitude towards the crisis in Afghanistan. Otherwise, a humanitarian disaster in the country is inevitable. It is a known fact that this disaster will not be limited to Afghanistan with its multidimensional different versions and will affect the world, starting from the immediate surroundings of the country in question, including the region and Europe.

Ahmad Khan Dawlatyar, 2013 yılında Kunduz Üniversitesi Hukuk ve Siyaset Bilimi Bölümü’nden mezun olmuştur. Yüksek lisans derecesini Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Siyaset Bilimi Anabilim Dalı’nda “Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ve Afganistan İslam Cumhuriyeti Anayasalarında Güçler Ayrılığı İlkesi Üzerine Karşılaştırmalı Bir Analiz” başlıklı teziyle 2019 yılında almıştır. Çeşitli bilimsel etkinliklere katılan Dawlatyar, Afganistan sorunuyla ilgili bildiriler ve makaleler sunmuştur. Bu kapsamda “Afganistan Sorununun Dini ve İdeolojik Nedenleri” başlıklı sunumu yayınlanmıştır. Halihazırda Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Uluslararası İlişkiler Anabilim Dalı’nda doktora eğitimine devam etmektedir. ANKASAM bünyesinde yürütülen çalışmalara katkıda bulunan Ahmad Khan Dawlatyar’ın başlıca çalışma alanları Afganistan ve Pakistan’dır. Dawlatyar, anadil seviyesinde Farsça, Özbekçe, Türkçe ve Peştunca dillerine hakimdir. Ayrıca orta düzeyde İngilizce bilmektedir.